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Mediaeval Latin – Anne-Marie Turcan-Verkerk (EPHE-PSL, AOROC)
Latin was used as a semi-living language, or at least as a common language of expression for intellectuals, until the nineteenth century. Throughout the Middle Ages, it continued to evolve (glottocode: medi1250), albeit slowly and in different ways depending on the regions, the genres of writing, the social classes, and its interactions with other languages (such as the language of the Bible, other scholarly languages, vernaculars…). It eventually returned to align with certain standards of high-level literature from the Classical period through humanism. For various reasons, which will be explained in the introduction, ten centuries of intellectual life in Latin varieties remained excluded from all secondary and higher education programs.